Verdun: A Lesson About War
By Rick Steves
- Download Article
- Download Photo #1 Download Photo #2
- Download Rick's Headshot — Color | Black and White
|Red roses decorate gravestones in a military cemetery near Verdun, one of World War I’s deadliest battlefields. (photo credit: Abe Bringolf)|
|The artillery shell-shaped tower at the ossuary in Douaumont, France, marks the final resting place for about 130,000 French and German soldiers who died in World War I. (photo credit: Abe Bringolf)|
World War I, the "war to end all wars," ended on Nov. 11, 1918, which is why we (and many other countries) celebrate veterans on this day. The battlefields of Verdun in France provide a poignant tribute to the 800,000 casualties suffered here during the horrific war of 1914–1918.
Verdun is in northeastern France, not far from the Champagne region, in a strategic location between Paris and the German border. In 1916, after two years of trench warfare, the Germans decided to strike a powerful knockout punch at the heart of the French defense; it would demoralize the enemy and force a quick surrender. They decided that Verdun would be the perfect target since it was almost surrounded, but the French fought to the bitter end. France eventually prevailed, but at a terrible cost.
Almost a century later, soft, forested lands hide the memories of World War I's longest battles, which raged here for over 300 days. It's difficult to imagine today's lush terrain as it was generations ago...a gray, treeless, crater-filled landscape, smothered in mud and littered with shattered stone. But the countryside still has its memories. Millions of live bombs are scattered in vast cordoned-off areas; it's not unusual for French farmers or hikers to be injured by until-now-unexploded mines.
The town of Verdun is not your destination, but a starting point for your visit into the nearby battlefields. A good plan is to drive a car or ride in a taxi through the eerie moguls surrounding the town, stopping at melted-sugar-cube forts and plaques marking spots where villages once existed. For most travelers, a half-day is enough, though historians could spend days here. Concentrate on three important sights: Mémorial — Musée de Fleury (Verdun Memorial), Fort de Douaumont, and L'Ossuaire de Douaumont. Each offers a different perspective on the war.
Start at the Mémorial — Musée de Fleury for an overview. It's built near the site of a village (Fleury) destroyed during the fighting. The museum provides a helpful visual presentation of this “modern” war — machine guns, flamethrowers, poisonous gas, and airplanes were all first used in World War I. There are displays of weapons, uniforms (note the French colonies' contributions), models, and photos. Its centerpiece is the re-creation of a battlefield, built by veterans of the battle. Look for the model of the unblemished Fort de Douaumont, and remember this when you visit it.
Fort de Douaumont was the most important stronghold in the network of forts built to defend Verdun. Soldiers were protected by a thick layer of sand (to muffle explosions) and a wall of concrete up to seven feet thick. In spite of this, German shelling rocked the structure, leaving it useless. Inside, there's little to see except two miles of cold, damp hallways. Walking these corridors will help you sympathize with the soldiers who were forced to live here like moles.
L'Ossuaire de Douaumont, an ossuary and cemetery, is the final resting place for 130,000 French and Germans whose last homes were the muddy trenches of Verdun. The artillery shell-shaped tower and cross design of this structure symbolizes war and peace. The building has 22 sections with 46 granite graves, each holding remains from a different sector of the battlefield. Look through the low windows for a bony memorial to those who were asked to make the ultimate sacrifice for their countries.
I make a point to visit war cemeteries in my travels. They always seem to come with a healthy dose of God — as if dying for God and country makes a soldier's death more meaningful than just dying for country. This one is an extremely moving sight with an eerie buzz of silence and peace. The cemetery has rows of 15,000 tombstones — Christian, Jewish, and Muslim (oriented toward Mecca) — decorated with roses. Moroccan soldiers were instrumental in France's ultimate victory at Verdun, a fact often overlooked by anti-immigration, right-wing politicians in France today.
You can read about the carnage as German and French soldiers slaughtered each other day after day on the Western Front. Or you can wander silently through fields of white crosses and headstones at the vast cemetery at Verdun — realizing that almost a century ago, a horrific war left more than 11 percent of the population of France dead or wounded. You'll come away with a deeper understanding of why to this day, France — and all of Europe — truly comprehends the gravity of war, a feeling shared by the veterans we honor every Nov. 11.
Rick Steves (www.ricksteves.com) writes European travel guidebooks and hosts travel shows on public television and public radio. Email him at firstname.lastname@example.org.