Hi. I'm Rick Steves, back with more of the best of Europe. This time we're in the north of Europe — exploring two great capitals on the Baltic Sea — Tallinn and Helsinki. Thanks for joining us.
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 Helsinki and Tallinn each suffered through a challenging 20th century. But today both are enjoying good times. Long-time Baltic cousins, Finns travel to Tallinn for affordable R&R and people in Estonia watched Helsinki TV all through the Cold War to at least know what freedom and prosperity looked like back when they didn't have it.
 In Helsinki we'll stroll with Finns on their grand esplanade, explore the "Gibraltar of the North," visit both of Helsinki's iconic cathedrals, simmer in a sauna, and cruise the islands of Helsinki's harbor. Then we'll cross the Baltic to Estonia, and stroll Tallinn's remarkably preserved old town, relax in the gardens of a Russian Palace, check out Social Realism — Estonian style, and learn how Estonians sang their way to freedom from the Soviet Union.
 In the North of Europe, the Baltic Sea is ringed by Russia, the Baltic nations and the Scandinavian nations. We start in Finland's capital Helsinki and then ferry to Estonia's capital, Tallinn.
 Helsinki is the only European capital with no medieval past. It was founded and ruled by the Swedes in the 16th century to be a strategic Baltic port. But the location was poor and it never amounted to more than a village. Then, in the 18th century, the Swedes built a huge fortress in the harbor and Helsinki grew and prospered.
 Today, with over half a million people, Helsinki is by far Finland's leading city. In spite of its Swedish roots, old Helsinki feels Russian. That's because when the Russians took over Finland in 1809 they made it Finland's capital modeled after their capital, St. Petersburg — stone buildings, white trim and neo-classical columns.
 Since downtown Helsinki wasn't built until the 1800s, it was more logically designed and laid out than other European capitals.
 Helsinki's grand boulevard, the Esplanadi, provides wide and inviting sidewalks for shoppers and a people-friendly park up the middle. The city seems designed to promote a sense of community and on warm summer days people take full advantage.
 Café Kappeli is an old-world oasis of coffee and relaxation. In the 19th century, this was a popular hangout for Russian officers, local intellectuals, and artists. The bandstand features live music almost daily in the summer.
 The arrival of cruise ships — sliding through tight passages between Helsinki's surrounding islands — energizes the city each day. Most travelers arrive by cruise ship. The towering Viking and Silja ships are each floating hotels for the thousands making the scenic island-studded trip from Stockholm.
 Hopping off their boat, visitors head directly for Helsinki's delightful and vibrant harbor square. Explore the colorful outdoor market; part souvenirs and crafts and part veggies and fruit.
Rick: the strawberries here are famous
Strawberry Seller: They are famous, yes, they are very nice ones and these ones are grown on the islands, the archipelago of Finland.
Rick: Can I try?
Rick: And organic from the islands?
Strawberry Seller: Yes, really nice ones, no pesticides used.
Rick: Mmm, nice, I'll have a little box please.
 The market is the place for the most casual, quick-and-cheap lunch in town. The salmon grills are a favorite. Everyone from the Finnish President on down to visiting tourists stop by for a dash of local flavor.
 While Helsinki's history is short, monuments to it are everywhere. The Czarina's Stone, with its double-headed eagle of imperial Russia, was erected in 1835 to celebrate the visit by Czar Nicholas and Czarina Alexandra.
 This fountain has become a symbol of Helsinki, the city nick-named the "Daughter of the Baltic." The voluptuous figure, modeled after the artist's Parisian mistress, was a scandal in its more puritan day.
 A short ferry ride takes us across the harbor to Helsinki's most important sight. Suomenlinna, an island guarding Helsinki's harbor, served as a strategic fortress for three countries: Sweden, Russia, and then Finland. It's now a popular park with a fascinating story.
 The fortress was built by the Swedes with French financial support in the mid-1700s to counter Russia's rise to power. Russia's Peter the Great had just built his new capital, St. Petersburg, nearby on the Baltic and he was eyeing the West.
 Think of it as European superpower chess. The Russians moved to St. Petersburg. The French countered by moving a Swedish castle here to Helsinki; stopping the Russian offensive...at least for the time being.
 The fortress was Sweden's military pride and joy. With five miles of walls and hundreds of cannon, it was the second mightiest fort of its kind in Europe after Gibraltar.
 Built by more than 10,000 workers, the fort was a huge investment and stimulated lots of innovation. In the 1760s, this was the world's biggest and most modern dry dock. After the construction of this fort, the village of Helsinki became a boom town supporting this grand "Gibraltar of the North."
 Today Suomenlinna is most appreciated by locals for its scenic strolls. Explore the park. There are ramparts to ramble and cannon to ponder. Cafés nestle in the shade of the walls. You'll find Finns on the rocks, and families enjoying their humble beach.
 Back in town, Helsinki's Senate Square — with the Lutheran cathedral as its centerpiece — is one of the finest Neoclassical squares in all of Europe.
 The buildings which formed the original square burned down in 1808. Then, after Finland became part of the Russian Empire, the czar sent in his leading architect, Carl Engel, to rebuild the square and give it the stature and elegance it has today.
 This statue honors Russian Czar Alexander II. While not popular in Russia (in fact, he was eventually assassinated), Finns liked him. He gave Finland more autonomy in 1863 and never pushed the "Russification" of Finland.
 The staircase leading up to the cathedral is a popular meeting (and tanning) spot. This is where students from the nearby university gather...and couples meet.
 With its stately dome and statues of the twelve apostles, the Lutheran Cathedral overlooks the city and harbor. Finished in 1852, its austerity is striking. I like to take a moment, surrounded by Finland's great reformers, to savor neoclassical simplicity.
 Physically, this church seems perfectly Protestant — unadorned — with the emphasis on two things: preaching with its prominent pulpit, and music with its grand organ. Statuary is limited to the Reformation big shots: Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon (Luther's intellectual sidekick), and the leading Finnish Reformer, Mikael Agricola.
 A follower of Luther in Germany, Agricola brought the Reformation here to Finland. He also translated the Bible into Finnish. Agricola's Bible is to Finland what the Luther Bible is to Germany and the King James Bible is to the English-speaking world.
 Nearby, also over-looking Helsinki, is the Orthodox Uspenski Cathedral. It faces the Lutheran Cathedral much as Russian culture faces Europe. Built in 1868 for the Russians back when Finland belonged to Russia, its main dome represents the "sacred heart of Jesus," while the smaller ones represent the hearts of the 12 apostles.
 Today this is the spiritual home of the city's Finnish Orthodox community. Its interior offers a rich experience. Icons of saints oversee flickering candles which represent prayers of the Orthodox faithful. These plush Eastern images are a stark contrast to the spare Lutheran Cathedral.
 Helsinki is set in a natural wonderland. And hopping a boat tour for a ninety-minute cruise makes that very clear. The several-hundred islands of its archipelago provide a delightful playground. Leaving the harbor you pass mighty ice breakers in their summer slumber. With the capacity to break through 15 feet of ice, they're a reminder of the bitter Baltic winters. Lonely cabins cap glacier ground granite. Finns are good at getting the most out of the long days of their short summer. Many have family cabins here and a standard feature is a free-standing sauna.
 But you don't need a cabin to enjoy a sauna. At this neighborhood sauna the regulars gather daily. Each morning the wood fire is stoked. That afternoon — in parallel facilities — men and women come to relax. For the Finns, the sauna is a lifestyle. Popular year around, it's especially appealing in the long cold winters. Buckets of icy water are great for dousing when you get too hot. Finns claim that bundles of birch twigs enhance the experience — increasing circulation, opening your pores, and spritzing the air with a wonderful birch aroma.
 Cap the experience relaxing with the local gang on the sidewalk just outside.
 Public trams can serve as a handy vehicle for a budget, do-it-yourself tour. Helsinki's tram #3 makes a scenic city loop. It runs every few minutes; tickets are good for an hour, and its great for hopping on and off to sightsee.
 The train station was built in the early 1900s. Its stern figures with lamps recall a time when this city provided light to a mostly rural nation and the rest of the world seemed very far away.
 A couple stops away is the city's main shopping drag. The Three Blacksmiths statue has stood here since 1932. Locals say it celebrates human labor and cooperation and shows the solid character of the Finnish people.
 Finland stood courageously strong against the Soviet Union and artfully maintained its independence through the Cold War. Today, tucked away in the far north of Europe, this city seems to celebrate both peace and culture.
 Six hundred stainless-steel pipes, shimmering in a park, honor Finland's greatest composer, Jean Sibelius. The monument is built on solid rock, as is so much of Finland.
 Sibelius, who composed in the late 19th century and early 20th, wrote music that stirred the national soul. His music — like paintings by Finland's romantic artists hanging in the national gallery — evokes the vast forest land, mythic legends, deep pagan roots...and heroic struggles of a stoic nation. Music and art that is uniquely Finnish contribute to the staying power of this small country of five million.
 A selection of ferries make the 50 mile crossing between Helsinki and Tallinn nearly hourly. Because of the ease of this delightful two-hour cruise and the variety a quick trip over to Estonia adds to your Nordic travels, pairing Helsinki and Tallinn is a natural.
 Stepping off the boat in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, you feel you've traveled a long way culturally from Finland. It's a mix of east and west. Tallinn's Nordic Lutheran culture and language connect it with Stockholm and Helsinki. But two centuries of Tsarist Russian rule and nearly 50 years as part of the Soviet Union have blended in a distinctly Russian flavor.
 Finns and Estonians share a similar history — first Swedish domination, then Russian, then independence after World War I. Until 1940, the Estonians were about as affluent as the Finns. But then Estonia was gobbled up by the expanding Soviet Empire and spent the decades after WWII under communism. When the USSR fell, Estonia regained its freedom and in 2004 it joined the European Union.
 Tallinn has modernized at an astounding rate since the fall of the Soviet Union. Its business district shines with the same glass and steel gleam you'll find in any modern city. Yet nearby are the rugged yet fully intact medieval walls and the town within these ramparts has a beautifully preserved Old World ambience. Among medieval cities in the north of Europe, none are as well-preserved as Tallinn.
 The Town Hall Square was a marketplace through the centuries. Its fine old buildings are a reminder that Tallinn was once an important medieval trading center. Today it's a touristy scene full of people just having fun.
 Through the season each mid-day, cruise ship groups congest the center as they blitz the town in the care of local guides.
 Like many tourist zones, Tallinn's is a commercial gauntlet. Here, there's a hokey Torture Museum, strolling Russian dolls, medieval theme restaurants complete with touts, and enthusiastic hawkers of ye olde taste treats.
 But just a couple blocks away is, for me, the real attraction of Tallinn — work-a-day locals enjoying real freedom and better economic times: Still-ramshackle courtyards host inviting cafes. Bistros serve organic cuisine in a chic patina of old-world-meets new.
 And just outside the walls, it seems there's no tourism at all. Under towering ramparts, the former moat is now a park... perfect for a warm summer afternoon stroll.
 In the 15th century, Tallinn consisted of two feuding medieval towns: The upper town — on a hill, called Toompea — is from where the country of Estonia has long been ruled. The lower town was an independent city. As a member of the Hanseatic Trading League, it was an economic power here in the Baltic world.
 This thriving port town was filled with mostly German merchants who hired Estonians to do their menial labor. The Old town feels Germanic with streets lined by the fancy facades of those 15th century big shot merchants.
 This merchant's home functioned as his warehouse and office as well. Its elaborately carved door evokes the wealth of Tallinn's business class in those days.
 Stairs lead from the lower old town into the fortified upper town, Toompea. Climbing into Estonia's historic capital, it's clear the architecture tells a story.
 Neighboring Russia has always loomed large and threatening over little Estonia. The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built here by Russians in 1900. While a beautiful building, most Estonians don't like this church.
 It was built to face the Estonian parliament building, clearly designed to flex Russian cultural muscles during a period of Estonian national revival. This tower survives from the original Toompea castle. Nicknamed Tall Hermann, it's a powerful symbol here.
 For 50 years, throughout the Cold War, Estonian flags were hidden away and the Soviet flag flew from atop this tower. Then, as the USSR was unraveling, Estonians proudly and defiantly replaced the red Soviet flag with their own.
 Today, while Toompea is filled with Estonian government buildings, it's also simply a pleasant place to stroll and enjoy some romantic viewpoints.
 Russia's influence over Estonia goes back long before the Soviet Union. When Russia took over Estonia in 1710, Tsar Peter the Great built the stately Kadriorg Palace for his Czarina, Catherine. The Czarina's private garden is now Tallinn's finest public park. The standard progression as divine monarchies give way to modern democracies and the former guard house now serves coffee to commoners.
 The leading sight within the park is the KuMu Art Museum, Estonia's striking national gallery, opened with pride and fanfare in 2006.
 While Estonian art evolved in step with the rest of Europe — it was also shaped along the way by the nation's history. For instance, nineteenth century Romanticism was the artistic style of Estonia's aristocratic German landlords who enjoyed art featuring idyllic Estonian peasant women in folk costumes and idealized settings. Local artists continued to paint in sync with European styles from Impressionism through Cubism and so on.
 But Estonian art parted ways with Western Europe after the Soviet take-over in 1945 which brought the end of artistic freedom. The Soviets insisted on one kind of art: Social Realism. This was beyond censorship. Art had to actively promote the Communist struggle. The Estonian artists' union was forced to renounce individual expression and be re-educated. The Stalinist formula: "National in style but socialist in content." Painters produced themes like this, titled "Excellent Young Communist Workers."
 Industry was celebrated. Mining was big in Estonia. So miners were portrayed as heroes, marching like soldiers to their glorious work.
 Soviet women were shown not as the idyllic cliché of traditional motherhood but as strong laborers, working side-by-side with men. They were entirely engaged in the quest to reach the communist ideal. Here, a woman oversees the bolstering of agricultural production.
 Posters were a natural fit for Social Realism. They could be mass produced. They generally came with a proclamation — this one reads, "It is good to work hard and buy government bonds." And they carried the propaganda message to every corner of society.
 In the 1960s things began to change. Many Estonian artists took a more independent and avant-garde approach, injecting hints of social commentary into their work. This angered Khrushchev and many artists ended up in Siberia.
 But as the Soviets would eventually learn, change was unstoppable. Western ideals began to infiltrate. Estonia was the only part of the USSR where pop art was recognized. Painters featured utopian scenes viewed through the eyes of alienated urbanites...Artists flirted with the psychedelic as a new generation came of age.
 Local guide Mati Rumessen, who grew up under Communism and did his military service as a driver in the Soviet army, is joining me to help us better understand the challenges of living fifty years under the Soviets.
Mati: I remember when Viru hotel was only skyscraper in the city and because KGB was very curious about every word spoken by foreign tourists, we had a local joke that the house was built from Soviet wonder material so called micro-concrete which would be 60% concrete and 40% microphones.
 Tallinn's vast and blocky suburb of Lasnamae, with about 90,000 apartment flats, dates back to Communist times. The Soviets attempted to Russify Estonia by planting or moving people into this country. Because of that about a quarter of all Tallinners are ethnic Russians.
 And, as is clear at this predominantly Russian market, the plantation of people — as it seems is always the case when governments move people for political purposes — leaves a poorer and struggling ethnic minority and their reluctance to assimilate leaves long term social challenges.
 Nearby is the stage from where the people of Estonia gathered to demand their independence. The Song Festival Grounds, which hosts massive choral festivals, is a uniquely Estonian institution. This is a national monument because of the stirring role it played in Estonia's fight for independence.
 With only a million people, lodged between Russia and Germany, and without a strong military, Estonians asserted themselves with song...They say being together and singing together was their power.
Rick: 300,000 Estonians gathering here to sing together.
Mati: Yes, one day in 1988, one third of Estonian nation gathered her to sing. To sing about the freedom, about the independence, to show to the rest of the world and especially to the Soviet side that we are tired to be one part of the Soviet system and as we see now, almost 20 years later that it was successful.
 Tallinn's Museum of the Occupation rounds out the story. Suitcases are a reminder of people who fled the country leaving everything behind. Displays show how Russians managed to keep the Estonians in line. Surveillance was a part of daily life. Prison doors evoke the countless lives lost in detention and deportation. And the communist leaders who once lorded over the Estonian people are now in the basement guarding the toilets.
 With freedom, Tallinn has joined Helsinki as a vibrant and welcoming destination. Each has a unique charm: Helsinki with its thriving esplanade, striking neo-classical design, and island escapes. And Tallinn with its medieval old town witnessing the emergence of a new prosperity.
 While Helsinki and Tallinn each have their own story, traveling here today you share the good times of two resilient and flourishing nations. Thanks for joining us. I'm Rick Steves. Until next time, keep on traveling.