Hi, I'm Rick Steves, back with more of the best of Europe. This time we're getting to know the locals like never before...in the North of England. Thanks for joining us.
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 Northern England is a lush land steeped in a rich blend of history, culture, and nature. Traveling here, I'm struck by how man and nature seem to co-exist in harmony... and how richly rewarding a visit can be.
 We'll hike along an ancient Roman wall, play a little cricket, and be dazzled in a Norman cathedral. We'll meet the locals — and their beloved dogs, and sheep...everywhere. Donning hard hats, we'll tour an old slate mine. And, of course, we'll enjoy the countless hikes — admiring lakes, discovering waterfalls, and conquering stoney summits.
 Great Britain is dominated by England. In the north of England, we'll visit Durham, Hadrian's Wall and the Cumbrian Lakes District. We'll focus on the less touristy northern lakes — home basing in Keswick.
 The Cumbrian Lake District — just 30 miles by 30 miles — is England's pristine, green, mountain playground. While not impressive in sheer height — England's tallest peak is only 3,200 feet — it's long been a powerful magnet for nature lovers.
[7,] The charm of this area is, in part, the range of experiences it provides.
Stumble upon a surprise lake view. Then climb over a rock fence to look into the eyes of a ragamuffin sheep. Find the perfect farmhouse B&B. Then enjoy this Packhorse Bridge. And for a memorable lunch, summit your own private peak for a picnic. This region gives even tenderfeet a chance to feel rugged and outdoorsy.
 Here in the Lake District, William Wordsworth's poems still ripple on the ponds. This is a land where nature rules, and humanity keeps a low profile. For two centuries, this region has inspired visitors to relax, recharge, get some exercise, and maybe even write a poem
 The Lake District is green for good reason. It rains a lot. Experienced English hikers dress smart and don't let blustery weather keep them in. It‘s rainy one moment and then suddenly gorgeous. As locals love to say, "There's no bad weather, just inappropriate clothing."
 The town of Keswick is your best home base for exploring the northern lakes — which I prefer to the more commercial southern part of the region. Keswick was originally a mining center. But the slate and lead industries eventually gave way to nature-loving tourists and, in the 19th century, Keswick became a resort. Its fine old buildings recall those Romantic era- days when big city folks first learned about "communing with nature." Today, the town is well-stocked with hiking-gear shops...and pubs.
 The Lake District is popular with English holiday-makers who prefer to bring their beloved dogs with them on vacation. Keswick's town square can look like a canine convention, and in local pubs, dogs are more than welcome.
 And we picked up a tip at the pub — a sheepdog trial and hound show is on today and it's just down the valley. Farm culture is still alive and well in these fertile hills. From gritty shephards to gentleman farmers to curious tourists, there's something for everyone. While lots of fun and plenty entertaining, competitions like these have practical roots. They go back to a time when agility and hunting instincts made a hound truly man's best friend. According to the program: a good Fell Foxhound must have: good shoulders, long neck, level back, and agile hind legs to jump stone walls.
 The scene itself offers a fascinating glimpse into this culture — from shepherd's crooks to tailgate party dog talk.
 And the main event, as explained to us by a local afficianato, is the shepherd and his dog bringing in the sheep as quickly as possible.
Farmer: The Shepherd goes out, he's given a position where he stands by the post and he has to direct his dog out on the right or the left the side is immaterial. Dogs, you can work with them half a mile away. They'll pick the sound up, they'll hear you and they can work half a mile away collecting sheep, putting them together, putting them into a flock and bringing them in as near a straight line as possible down through the course, through the hurdles there, back to the pen, hopefully nice pen, straight in, no breaks and the applause...
Working a Border collie is like marriage, it's got to click, you must have confidence in one another. The dog will have confidence in you if you've got confidence in him. It's as beautiful as that and it's lovely to work with him.
 Keswick has plenty of good B&Bs. We're staying at Howe Keld which has the polished feel of a boutique hotel, but offers all the warmth and friendliness of a B&B. Its contemporary rooms are tastefully furnished in native woods and slate. Its breakfast is first class — I'm getting the traditional Cumbrian fry — complete with local sausage. And the lounge offers a cozy and enjoyable place to relax and prepare for your day's activities. Good B&B hosts loan maps and offer plenty of hiking advice.
 Just down the street is Keswick's petite marina where we're combining a short cruise with my favorite Lake District hike — up a dramatic nearby ridge.
 Derwentwater is one of Cumbria's most photographed and popular lakes. Boats circle the lake picking up and dropping off walkers at peaceful landings all along the way.
 From the dock a trail leads up along a ridge called Catbells. The steep climb both burns off that Cumbrian fried breakfast and offers some commanding views.
 Vigorous hikes like this are one of many reasons the Lake District is such a hit with English holiday goers. This little adventure just takes a couple hours and it rewards anyone who tackles it with a trip highlight. Get out and make these experiences happen. For the rest of your life you'll remember, in this case, scaling Catbells with its thrilling "king of the mountain" climax.
 After our descent, we catch the boat at the next landing, and finish our relaxing cruise around Derwentwater.
 The Pheasant Inn is a Keswick favorite and David and Val who run our B&B are joining us +for dinner. As anywhere in Britain, a good pub comes with charming conviviality. Kids are welcome. And, once again, in Cumbrian pubs, man's best friend is perfectly welcome too. The menu offers Lake District pub classics. David's having trout, and I'm going for the rump o' lamb.
Rick: My image of pub grub in the old days was pretty bad.
David: No, pubs have taken a lot more interest in food now. They're not just the drinking destinations; they have to sell food in order to attract people in.
Rick: And they're smoke free.
Val: That's a great improvement since the smoking ban came in. It's much more pleasant to eat now.
 A short drive south from Keswick takes us through the very countryside that inspired England's great Romantic poets. The greatest of those was William Wordsworth who lived here, in Dove Cottage. Wordsworth spent his most productive years — 1799 to 1808 — in this humble stone house. This is where he married, had kids, and wrote much of his best poetry. In these cramped and simple quarters, Woodsworth practiced his philosophy of plain living and high thinking.
 The adjacent museum displays original writings, sketches, and personal items that give another peek into the life and world of the poet. His well-stamped passport and his well-worn little suitcase are proof he packed light and traveled far and wide. Notebook in hand, he wandered across England and through Europe on what would become the Romantic grand tour.
 Until then, almost nobody climbed a mountain just because it was there — but Wordsworth did. He'd wander "lonely as a cloud" through the countryside, finding inspiration lost in the awe-inspiring immensity of nature. If appreciating nature became a religion in 19th century England, Wordsworth was its prophet.
 With the advent of the industrial age, machines were taming nature and factory hours were taming free spirits. The Romantic movement — led by artists and writers like Wordsworth — was a reaction against this. Romanticism celebrated nature...making it almost a religion. People came to the Lakes District as if on a pilgrimage. And, like the poets, after communing with nature... they'd be inspired... then reflect on the meaning of life.
 While Wordsworth would likely be appalled at the speedy convenience of it all, drivers can enjoy car touring. From Keswick, a scenic 20 mile loop south reveals the essence of Lake District charms.
 Newlands Valley is a majestic place. If it had a lake, it would be packed with tourists. But it doesn't — and it isn't. The valley is dotted with old, family-run farms. With tough times for small farms, most of the wives supplement the family income by running B&Bs. Many farms in the valley rent rooms.
 I've been recommending the Keskadale farm in my Britain guidebook for over twenty years. Margaret Harryman's welcome is as warm as ever and staying in her B&B, there's no doubt, you really are on a working farm. Their son, Sean, will some day run the farm. One thing he's already in charge of is shearing the sheep. Each of their 1500 sheep need to be sheared each summer.
Rick: Why do you have to shear the sheep?
Margaret: Well, for husbandry reasons and for the welfare of the sheep and they're sheared when it's warm weather and it's a great releif for the sheep to be sheared
But the fleeces are no longer the money-maker they once were. In fact, recently, prices were so low farmers here just burned the wool. Today, with new uses for this natural fiber, wool prices are higher so Sean and his dad collect the fleeces into bales.
Rick: Does it hurt the sheep?
Margaret: No, no, no it's very therapeutic, it just glides by the skin so it doesn't hurt them at all.
 When car touring, make a point to stop and get out. From the Newlands Pass summit, take a rewarding little walk to a frisky waterfall.
 From here, the road descends, winding scenically past a farm hamlet and to delightful Buttermere — with its popular lakeside trail. Our loop then climbs rugged Honnister Pass — with its wild and weather-beaten charm.
 At the summit stands the Honister Slate Mine. England's last still-functioning slate mine offers tours. You'll put on a hard hat .... load onto a bus for a short climb.... then learn about the region's slate industry from an enthusiastic guide.
Guide: What we describe that rock as is green gold. It's called green gold, because it represents today, the finest roofing slate in the world. It is the number one, the Rolls Royce of slate. On that rock on the far side as we looked when we were down below there are little stone huts that the miners used to live because what we have to remember here is pre-first world war through the history of mining; if you worked here, you lived here. Right this way folks....
 Narrow shafts lead deep into the evocative Victorian mine. You'll be thankful for your helmet ... standing inside the mountain, surrounded by slate scrap and the beams of a dozen headlamps, you'll learn the back-story of the stone that roofs so much of England.
Guide: Imagine you're eight or ten years old working underground for ten to fourteen hours a day and your job was to assist your father and your elder brothers in drilling the rock. I think you're going to get the hang of this very quickly folks because you can imagine there's somebody at the end of this one with a large sledgehammer and each time you
 I don't know about you, but a tour like that makes me glad I work, and live above ground in the 21st century.
 Completing our loop, we pass humble hamlets and the lush Borrowdale Valley — always open for serendipity.
[42a] Coming upon an inviting gathering, we pull over and find ourselves at a cricket match — complete with Cumbrian sausage on the grill and a keg of the local brew. The gang gathered here bragged their field was named England's most beautiful cricket pitch — and I can see why.
[42c] And this gave me yet another chance to understand this bewildering national pastime.
Rick: So the pitcher is called a bowler.
Cricket Watcher: Yes he is.
Rick: Are you a bowler, our pitcher's a bowler. And what do you call your batter?
Cricket Watcher: The batter.
Rick: Alright. So now is that a point?
Cricket Watcher: That's a fall. Fall runs. If he hits it over the boundary which is the white line in front of us here, he gets fall.
Rick: You know, I'm still confused. I'm still confused. But I'm less confused than I was a few minutes ago.
Cricket Watcher: Good. Right. Well if anybody can confuse anybody I can.
Rick: Well, you're doing a good job.
 These valleys have sustained communities here for longer than you might imagine. Just outside of Keswick stands the Castlerigg Stone Circle. Like a mini-Stonehenge drenched in Lake District beauty, it was built over 4000 years ago to function as a celestial calendar.
 Imagine ancient people filling this clearing in spring to celebrate fertility, in late summer for the harvest, and in winter for the solstice. Festival dates were dictated by how the sun rose and set in relation to these stones which were aligned with the surrounding peaks.
For maximum goose pimples, as they say in England, be here after everyone's left and the mystical place is all yours.
 Leaving the Lake District, we drive east for more highlights of North England. The road parrallels my favorite ancient Roman sight in Britain. Hadrian's Wall was built by the Romans during the reign of Emperor Hadrian nearly 2000 years ago. This is one of England's most thought-provoking sights and much loved by hikers. This great stone wall stretched 73 miles from coast to coast across the narrowest part of northern England.
 This was more than just a wall. It was a cleverly designed military rampart manned by 20,000 troops. At every mile along the wall, a small fort guarded a gate.
 Its actual purpose is still debated. The wall, which often took advantage of natural landforms, likely defined the northern edge of the empire and helped protect Roman Britain to the south from pesky and hard-to-conquer barbarian tribes to the north. Today's modern border between Scotland and England still runs pretty close to this ancient wall.
 A particularly well-preserved segment of the wall leads to Housesteads Roman Fort. Roman forts had a standard design: a rectangular shape containing a commander's headquarters and barracks. There's little more than stone foundations remaining — these stones raised a floor to give stored grain ventilation and this was once a set of spartan barracks. Pondering these desolate ruins, I can imagine the bleakness of being a young Roman soldier stationed here 18 centuries ago.
 Driving further east we reach the city of Durham. With its famous cathedral, built by the Normans, it adds another layer to this region's history.
 As their empire fell in the 5th century, the Romans abandoned Britain to the barbarians. After centuries of relative chaos, a central government was re-established by the Normans who invaded from France in 1066. Along with stability and a capable rule, Normans brought with them the prevailing European style of architecture, Romanesque. Here in England, the style was named for the people who brought it — Norman.
 Before visiting the church and learning about Norman architecture, we'll get the lay of the land. A sharp bend in its river protected medieval Durham — providing a moat on three sides. Today the river seems to protect the city only from the modern world. From this riverside path — much enjoyed by residents for a peaceful little get-away — we can ponder the cathedral as approaching medieval pilgrims once did.
 The tangle of streets leading to the cathedral, while retaining its medieval atmosphere, is lively. The city hosts the country's third oldest university. Along with the student vibe, Durham also feels blue collar because of its historic connection with the mining industry.
 For nearly a thousand years, pilgrims have set their sights on this...the Durham Cathedral, standing like a mighty fortress. Built around the year 1100 to house the much venerated bones of the great missionary monk, St. Cuthbert, it offers perhaps England‘s best and purest look at Norman architecture.
 The architecture is unusually harmonious because the church was completed in just 40 years and survives essentially unaltered. Round arches and zig-zag decorations are text book Norman style. Stroll down the nave to the center. Gaze up at one of the highest bell towers in Europe.
 When the Normans conquered the Saxons here in England back in the 11th century, they brought with them more than just their architecture. They brought a whole new order. And this mighty church, way up here in the North, was more than a place of worship and home for Cuthbert's bones. It was an unambiguous political statement to both the conquered Saxons and to the Scots further north. The Normans were here to stay.
 Grand medieval churches and the art that fills them are a reminder that monks like Cuthbert were the intellectual candles who helped keep scholarship flickering through the Dark Ages. Later, that knowledge strengthened the Church and made wonders like the Durham Cathedral possible.
 While this fresco of the saint dates from the 12th century, Cuthbert died way before that — in the year 687. The cathedral displays the saint's coffin and treasures that were buried with him. This fine Saxon sash was embroidered with gold thread and silk. And this is the exquisit cross that this leader of the early Christian church in northern England wore.
 For a better understanding of the cathedral and its saint, we're joined by cannon Stephen Cherry.
Rick: But the cahtedral is called the Shrine to Cuithbert. What does that mean to you?
Stephen Cherry: It's really remarkable that we have the body of the saint from so long ago in our custody here as it were. So what we do is I think we kind of bond with Cuthert's spirit. We bond with that deep sense of history and tradition that Cuthbert represented. He was a man of profound spirituality but also very serious human struggle. Being close to St. Cuthbert means for me getting closer to Jesus Christ because of understanding the way in which Jesus worked through the life of this man albeit he lived sovery many centuries ago...
Rick: For 1000 years pastors and priests and ministers like you have been serving the needs of this community. That must be kind of an inspiration in itself.
Stephen Cherry: It's a very inspiring thing. You think of all those years, 500 years before the Reformation, when the mass was being celebrated. Then a little hiatus and then the post-Reformation church, that too was saying the mass, it was celebrating holy communion, the daily offers here everyday and we're still part of that.
Rick: When you walk through the cathedral there's a feeling that it's vibrant and alive/
Stephen Cherry: It absolutely is vibrant and alive. We're completely committee to welcoming all who come. We're entirely committed to engaging with the arts and celebrating the good things of life. That freshmess of mission is integral to the life of the cathedral.
 As if to stress that point, the medieval Durham cathedral is enlivened with art from our generation and from its community. This window gives us a striking overhead view of the Last Supper. And this one celebrates the church's 1000th birthday with a sweep through local history and industry from mining to farming.
 I hope you've enjoyed our trip through Northern England — from the pristine Lake District, along Hadrian's awe-inspiring wall, to Durham's magnificent cathedral. We've been inspired by England's fascinating past while enjoying its charming present.
 As we've seen here in the North of England, you don't need big cities for richly rewarding travel experiences. Thanks for joining us. I'm Rick Steves. Until next time...keep on travelin'.