Riding Europe’s Subways

Europe’s subways zip you efficiently and affordably between most sights.
Maps like this one in Paris’ Métro stations help you get your bearings as you leave the subway.
By Rick Steves

Most of Europe’s big cities are blessed with an excellent subway system, and wise travelers know that learning this network is key to efficient sightseeing. European subways go by many names: “Metro” is the most common term on the Continent, but Germany and Austria use “U-Bahn.” For Scandinavia, it’s the “T-bane” in Oslo, “T-bana” in Stockholm, and “S-tog” in Copenhagen. In London, it’s the “Tube” (to the British, a “subway” is a pedestrian underpass). In big subway systems, shops are clustered at larger stops.

Subways generally operate from about 6 a.m. until midnight. They rarely follow a specific schedule, but just pass by at frequent but irregular intervals. Most systems have electronic signs noting when the next train will arrive.

Here are tips for smooth sailing on Europe’s subways:

Study your map. Subway maps are usually included within city maps and are posted prominently at the station and usually on board. A typical subway map is a spaghetti-like tangle of intersecting, colorful lines. The individual lines are color-coded, numbered, and/or lettered (and even named, in the case of London); their stations, including those at either end of the line, are also indicated. These end stations — while probably places you’ll never go — are important, since they tell you which direction the train is headed and appear (usually) as the name listed on the front of the train.

A few cities (like Rome) have just two or three subway lines, while London has over a dozen. Some cities’ subways share the tracks with express commuter trains (such as Paris’ RER and Germany’s S-Bahn), which make fewer stops and can usually get you across town faster.

Plan your route. Determine which line you need, the name of the end station in the direction you want to go, and (if necessary) where to transfer to another line. In the station, you’ll use this information to follow signs to reach your platform. When in doubt, just ask someone.

Validate your ticket. Once you buy a ticket, you may need to validate it in a turnstile slot (don’t forget to retrieve it) — watch to see what others do. If you have an all-day or multi-day ticket, you may need to validate it only the first time you use it, or not at all (ask when you buy it). If there’s no turnstile at the station, it doesn’t mean the subway is free; if you’re caught traveling without a valid ticket, you’ll be fined, usually on the spot. Don’t throw away your ticket too soon — you might need to insert it in a turnstile to exit the system (the machine might keep your ticket if it’s used up). Once you’re out, toss or tear used tickets to avoid confusing them with unused ones.

Keep alert. Follow signage carefully as you navigate through the station. Confirm that you’re at the right platform — heading in the right direction — before boarding. Subways can get packed during rush hour. Try to steer clear of crowds and commotion; there are usually fewer people in the first and last cars.

Stick together. If you’re with a companion or group, make sure everyone knows the name of your final stop before boarding, stays close together, and agrees on a game plan in case you get separated. If a subway is about to depart as you arrive on the platform, don’t rush to catch it and risk leaving behind your companions; subways run frequently and it’s far easier to wait for the next departure than to reconnect with your split-up group.

Get off at the right place. Once on the train, follow along with each stop on your map. Newer cars may have an electronic screen showing the next stop. Sometimes the driver or an automated voice announces the upcoming stop — but don’t count on this cue, as a foreign name spoken by a native speaker over a crackly loudspeaker can be difficult to understand. Keep an eye out the window as you pull into each station; the station’s name will be posted prominently on the platform or along the wall. If the train is crowded, move close to the doors one stop before you want to exit. When the train stops, the doors may open automatically, or you may need to open them yourself by pushing a button or pulling a lever. Don’t panic — watch others and imitate.

If you need to transfer, follow the signs. Changing from one subway line to another can be as easy as walking a few steps to an adjacent platform — or a bewildering wander via a labyrinth of stairs and long passageways. Subway systems are clearly signed — just follow along (or ask a local for help).

Exit the station. When you arrive at your destination station, follow exit signs up toward street level, keeping an eye out for posted maps of the surrounding neighborhood to help you get your bearings. Bigger stations have multiple exits, signposted by street name or nearby landmarks. Choosing the right exit will help you avoid extra walking and unnecessary forays through busy intersections. Some travelers carry a pocket compass to help them get oriented when they surface from the subway.