See more travel details for recommendations highlighted in bold, excerpted from Rick's guidebooks.
Hi, I'm Rick Steves back with more of the best of Europe. Get ready to experience Dublin — capital of the youngest and friendliest country in the European Union.
Dublin is Ireland's capital and largest city — with reminders of its stirring history and rich culture on nearly every street corner. In spite of its recent struggles, today it's a boomtown. And lately, locals are enjoying the "Celtic Tiger" economy — one of the hottest in Europe.
In this episode we'll tap our feet to traditional music, admire ancient Irish gold, try a little hurling, remember a bloody civil war, drink Guinness in its birthplace, join local poets on a pub crawl, and sidetrip to ancient sites near Dublin.
Dublin was founded here on the River Liffey in the ninth century as a Viking trading settlement. It grew to become a center of wealth and commerce second only to London in the British Empire. Dublin was the most "English" of Ireland's cities, an "outpost of Englishness" when the rest of the island was rural, Catholic, and very Irish.
The Golden Age of English Dublin was the 18th century, when Britain was colonizing the world and growing very rich. Largely rebuilt during this Georgian era, Dublin became an elegant and cultured capital with its own parliament. The 18th century left Dublin with an air of grandness and sophistication.
Then the ideas of the French Revolution — nationalism, human rights, and so on — got in the way. In 1798 the Irish rebelled against English rule. This ended Dublin's cozy relationship with London and her genteel age was replaced by a century of strife and struggle.
This memorial to the victims of the Great Potato Famine of 1845 is a reminder that good times were replaced by an age when the national costume became bare feet and rags.
In the 19th century, with the great hunger, the closing of the Irish Parliament, and several uprisings for independence, The Irish were treated — and felt — more like an English colony than a partner.
The tension culminated in the 1920s with a successful war for independence followed immediately by a tragic civil war. Finally, Dublin — its once elegant streets in ruins — emerged as the capital of the only former colony within Europe.
While patriotic statues keep memories of Ireland's long fight for independence alive, it's boom time now. Rather than exporting labor, for the first time Ireland is actually importing workers.
Grafton Street is the place to feel the new energy of Dublin. Once filled with noisy traffic, today this is a fun people zone lined with cafés, pubs and shopping temptations.
Grafton Street leads to St. Stephen's Green. On a sunny afternoon, this lush city park is an inviting world apart from the big city. Once a place for public whippings and hangings, today it's a cheery lunchtime escape for Dubliners. St. Stephen's Green was enclosed in 1664 and gradually surrounded with fine Georgian buildings.
Today, 19th century Dublin appears as Georgian as any city in Britain. Georgian — the English term for neo-Classical — is named for the English kings of that era. Things were stately, uniform, and symmetrical. The streets are a grid plan — with vistas built in.
The only hint of playfulness comes from the fun colors. Locals say that after an English royal died, they were told to paint all the doors black in mourning — this sent the naughty Irish directly to the paint store.
To venture behind the fancy facades, visit Number 29 Lower Fitzwilliam Street. Admission to this Dublin home from 1790 — now a museum — comes with tours giving an intimate glimpse at the elegance of Georgian life.
Guide: The word drawing room is short for withdrawing room so these are the rooms to which the family withdrew when the family had finished dining. Very often near a fireplace they had a polescreen and this is a polescreen here, and it was used to shield people's faces from the heat of the fire because they used heavy wax-based makeup, which might run or melt close to the fire.
The tour also shows the bedrooms and boudoirs of this typical well-to-do Georgian family.
The sons of that family likely would have gone to Trinity College — founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I to establish a Protestant way of thinking about God. Trinity has long been Ireland's most prestigious college. While the student body was originally limited to rich Protestant males, today many of its students are women and Catholic.
For tourists, the big draw on campus is a museum containing the precious Book of Kells — a monk-made set of the four Gospels from about the year 800.
Before you view the original, a first-class exhibit prepares you by putting this 680-page illuminated manuscript in its historical and cultural context. Irish monks transcribed and illustrated precious manuscripts like the Book of Kells.
Studying this copy it's clear this was painstaking work. Cover pages and chapter heads were a chance for the monks to show off their artistic creativity. They went to great lengths — using powders from crushed bugs and precious stones — to get the most vivid pigments. Medieval books were written on vellum — that's calfskin scraped with a knife. It's estimated that it took the skins of 185 darling little calves to make the Book of Kells.
To see the actual Book of Kells you'll have to come to Dublin. Cameras are not allowed.
Upstairs, Trinity's Old Library is stacked to its towering ceiling with 200,000 of the library's oldest books. Here you'll find a rare original edition of the Proclamation of the independent Irish Republic. Starting the Easter Rising in 1916, a rebel leader read these stirring and inclusive words:
Irishmen and Irish women: In the name of God and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood, Ireland through us, summons her children to her flag and strikes for her freedom.
Each of the seven signatories were arrested and then executed in a nearby prison — now a national memorial that we'll visit later.
The library holds another national icon — Ireland's oldest surviving harp, from the 15th century.
This harp is featured on the back of the Irish Euro coin. While the Euro — adopted in 2002 — is the accepted currency throughout the countries of Euro land, each country customizes the flip side with its own national symbol.
For more treasures of Ireland from the Stone Age to the Middle Age, visit the National Museum. Its chalices, jewelry and brooches give glimpses into Ireland's distant and mysterious past.
Ireland's Bronze Age gold — from centuries before Christ — dazzles visitors, making it clear civilization in Ireland goes way back.
This delicate little boat — modeled after the skin-hulled boats used by people here 2,000 years ago — was an offering, placed into a lake in hopes of gaining blessings from the gods.
The collection's superstar is the Tara Brooch embellished with gold, enamel, and amber. This early Christian ornamental brooch is 1,200 years old. Made of copper and silver, it's decorated with extremely delicate filigree and Celtic-style figures. The chain on the right is connected to the ring by a snake biting the brooch. The two almost microscopic faces — etched into glass beads — are a marvel.
While the museum pieces are impressive, the place to commune with the ancient soul of Ireland is in its lush countryside. The peaceful Boyne river valley, just an hour's drive north of Dublin, offers a world-class concentration of historical and spiritual sites.
In one day you can see the capital of ancient Irish kings; some of Ireland's finest high crosses; crawl through burial mounds older than the pyramids; and be back in Dublin in time for dinner and a pub-crawl. And that's precisely our plan.
The Hill of Tara was the most important center of political and religious power in pre-Christian Ireland. It was seat of the High Kings of Celtic Ireland.
Jean: And this is the place where you will find the soul of Ireland. Here on this Hill of Tara
Local guide Jean Thornton is giving us a sample of Tara's pre-historic, medieval, and modern history.
Rick: "So for 5,000 years people have come here?"
Jean: People have come to Tara and indeed they still come today. We know the Stone Age people were here, we know the Bronze Age people were here, we know the Iron Age people were here. This area was a very sacred place where ceremony and ritual took place. Now you'll know St. Patrick is our patron saint and the shamrock is a symbol of Ireland. We are told it all began here, on this Hill of Tara. Now in 432 A.D., Ireland was a pagan country. Now he came here to this Hill of Tara to ask the pagan King's permission to spread Christianity.
Now, this is what St. Patrick used to explain Christianity to the high king. He used this as a symbol. There are three leaves and one stem on this little shamrock — the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit — and that is how he explained the Trinity, the concept of Christianity, to this pagan king.
The symbolic importance of Tara continued into Ireland's modern history. In 1843 Daniel O'Connell, the great champion of Irish Liberty, gathered several hundred thousand people here. They peacefully demanded Irish home rule.
This ruined monastery, Monasterboice, is notable for its round tower — a standard feature in Ireland's early Christian churches — and its ornately carved high crosses. The Cross of Murdock — named after an abbot who ran this place around the year 900 — is considered the finest high cross in all Ireland. These crosses were illustrated with Bible stories carved into the sandstone. Originally they were brightly painted.
Imagine a thousand years ago, priests used these as visual aids as they taught the people.
The most popular sightseeing attraction near Dublin is Bru na Boinne, an archaeological site with two amazing ancient burial mounds. Upon arrival, visitors get appointments to tour the tombs, spend waiting time in the state-of-the-art museum, then catch their shuttle bus to one or both of the 5,000-year-old passage tombs — Newgrange and Knowth.
Knowth is a necropolis — or city of the dead — with several grassy mounds around one grand tomb. Being a passage tomb, it has a tunnel facing east and one facing west — aligned so that on both the spring and fall equinoxes, rays from the rising and setting sun shine down the passageways, illuminating its central chamber.
Guide: To give you an idea of the sweep of history here, these sites were built approximately 5,300 years ago — approximately 3,300 B.C. — which puts them 500 years older than the oldest pyramid in Egypt, 1,000 years older than Stonehenge in Wiltshire in England. So these people put a huge amount of energy and resources, basically a huge amount of wealth, into these monuments. They were probably thinking not just about survival but issues around life, death — the story of their tribe, the story of their ancestors, issues like rebirth, where did they come from, where were they going to.
Another shuttle bus ride drops us at the Newgrange tomb — thought to be even older, dating from 3,200 B.C. While we know almost nothing of the builders, this was most certainly a sacred spot dealing with some kind of sun god ritual. Imagine the impact — the largest structure ever seen faced with exotic white quartz
Guide: The farming people who constructed these monuments, these passage tombs, must have been the original hunting/gathering people of this country who came here after the ice melted. This abstract art appeared with them in tandem with farming as if it was a symbolic language — something to do with their psychological and religious needs.
Your guide actually takes you into the tomb — down a narrow passageway, which leads to the cross-shaped central chamber under a 20-foot-high igloo-type stone dome.
Bones and ashes were placed here under 200,000 tons of stone and dirt to wait for a special moment. Here, in a replica of the tomb, back in the museum, your guide turns out the light and the sunray ritual is demonstrated: As the sun rises on the shortest day of the year, a ray of light shines into the passageway. For 17 minutes it lights the center of the sacred chamber.
Perhaps this was the moment when the souls of the dead would be transported to the afterlife via that mysterious ray of life-giving and life-taking sunlight.
The Irish countryside holds the secrets of Ireland's first inhabitants and the mysteries of their ancient rituals. Back in today's Dublin, the Temple Bar district has its own seemingly mysterious rituals. We're here around the Summer Solstice, when it's light until 10 o'clock, and the people are celebrating.
Temple Bar is Dublin's thriving nightlife center. While rundown through most of the 20th century, recent government tax incentives have helped turn Temple Bar into a thriving cultural and beer-drinking hotspot. Today this trendy center feels like the social heart of Dublin. Lots of these people are English who sail over for stag and hen parties.
With its recent economic boom and the majority of its people under 30 years of age, Dublin is modernizing like a city on fast-forward. While the Irish economy gallops into the 21st century, Irish attitudes and laws on sex and marriage are more traditional. Steven McPhillamy, who leads tours for me in Ireland, is cluing me in on some changes Ireland is going through.
Steven: For the last 10 years our country has changed rapidly, we've legalized contraception, we have legalized divorce and we're in the process of probably legalizing abortion.
Rick: Now with all this youth culture is there still room for traditional Irish lifestyle?
Steven: I think very much so. We're becoming the quintessential European cosmopolitan city here. We're proud to be Europeans in Dublin and I think we make good Europeans. The more European we become, I think we strive to maintain our Irishness as well. Young people here still speaking the language, maybe not fluently, maybe not everyday, but still speaking it so it's alive, it's well, we're playing our sports, doing our dancing, singing our ballads and songs at nighttime. A lot of it under the influence of this, but at least it's been sung Sláinte!
The strength of Irish culture is particularly evident in the country's love for its national sports. The Gaelic Athletic Association tells why. The GAA was founded in the 19th century as an expression of an Irish cultural awakening. While created to foster the development of Gaelic sports such as hurling or Irish field hockey and to ban English sports like cricket, the GAA played an important part in the fight for independence.
Hurling matches are on Sundays — and actually seeing one, surrounded by incredibly spirited Irish fans, is a memorable experience. But you can relive the greatest moments in hurling history here any day of the week. Hurling — like airborne hockey with no injury timeouts — has long been recognized as Ireland's national pastime.
After a peek at Ireland's top pitch, you can pick up a stick and give the game a whirl
For many, the most endearing aspect of Irish culture is their love of language both oral and written. Whether you're into Yeats or U2, the written gift of gab is an Irish form of high art.
Dublin, around the turn of the 20th century, produced some of the world's great modern writers — like James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, and Oscar Wilde.
Wilde was a Dubliner, attended Trinity College, and walked this park, wowing Dublin and London alike with his quick wit, outrageous clothes and flamboyant personality.
In his humorous plays he satirized upper-class Victorian society. His characters spoke very elegantly about the trivial concerns of the idle rich.
James Joyce used to wander the back streets of Dublin, observing its seedier side, which he captured in a modern stream-of-consciousness style.
His famous novel Ulysses is set in a single day — June 16, 1904. In it, he follows turn-of-the-century Dubliners on a one-day odyssey through the city's markets, hospitals, brothels and pubs.
Tourists gather for the Literary Pub Crawl, which leaves almost nightly from the Duke Pub. Tickets are cheap just show up. Two actors take a gang of tourists on a witty walk, stopping at pubs and historical sites along the way — it's Irish lit 101 filled with entertaining banter, which introduces the novice to the high craic — that's conversation — of Ireland's great writers. It's the perfect finish to a day in Dublin: Enjoying a pint and being a part of the great Irish storytelling tradition.
O'Connell Street — leading from O'Connell Bridge through the heart of north Dublin — is lined by statues celebrating great figures in Ireland's fight for independence. While it's been Dublin's grandest street for 200 years, it was renamed after this man, Daniel O'Connell, after the Irish won their independence in the 1920s. Daniel O'Connell, known as "the Liberator," was that strong voice for Irish Catholics in the British Parliament back in the 1800s.
Dublin's General Post Office is not just a place to buy stamps. It's a kind of Irish Alamo, still pockmarked with bullet holes. Murals inside tell its story. It was from here that Patrick Pearse read the Proclamation of Irish Independence in 1916 — the one we saw earlier — and kicked off the Easter Rising, which ultimately led to Ireland's independence from British rule. This was the rebel headquarters and scene of a five-day bloody siege that followed that proclamation.
After 300 were killed and the rebels realized that no national uprising would follow theirs, they surrendered. While they had little public support at first, after the British tried and executed the leaders, public sympathy rose and they became martyrs .this stirred the public. British control began collapsing and by 1921 Ireland was independent.
At Dublin Castle the British formally handed power over to the Irish in a stirring ceremony in this courtyard.
It was from here that the Viceroy enforced the will of British royalty. This place was the much feared and disdained seat of British rule in Ireland for 700 years.
Today, it's used for state and charity functions and guided tours of this most 'English' of Irish palaces.
Kilmainham Jail, opened in 1796 and considered a model in its day, was used as a political prison by the British. Many of Ireland's patriots — its Nathan Hales and Patrick Henrys — were held and then executed here.
Guides take visitors through the prison and give it meaning.
Guide: Fourteen of the leaders of the rebellion were to be executed in this very yard. The very first to be executed, Patrick Pearse, Thomas Clarke and Thomas MacDonagh, were taken down here separately in the early hours of the third of May. They were taken down there where that cross now stands. Their hands were tied behind their backs, a white marker was placed over their hearts, and they were blindfolded
The prison museum personalizes the inspirational story of the leaders of the Easter Rising. The "Last Words 1916" hall displays the stirring farewell letters the martyred leaders wrote to loved ones hours before facing the firing squad.
Near the jail, the huge Guinness brewery fills several city blocks along Dublin's River Liffey. Arthur Guinness began brewing the famous stout here in 1759. A hundred years later, it was the biggest brewery in the world.
The home of Ireland's national beer welcomes visitors — for a price — with a huge exhibit. It fills the old fermentation plant like a shrine. A tall beer glass-shaped glass atrium — 14 million pints big — leads past several floors of exhibitions to the skylight and the Gravity Bar, which gives visitors a commanding 360-degree view of Dublin while they enjoy a pint.
Guinness is having to adapt to the new prosperous Ireland. Once the clear leader, now — as Ireland embraces its new fast-paced economy — drinking pint after heavy pint of this thick headed stout is no longer your only option. Lighter lagers are the trend. In recent years Guinness has introduced a cold version — Ice Guinness, and a light brew for the ladies — which, to the cheers of the purists, bombed. Still, in Dublin, when you ask for a beer you get a Guinness.
Which reminds me, we're due back in Temple Bar for another pub-crawl. In Ireland good beer comes with good music. For a toe-tapping introduction to "trad," as traditional music is called, we're taking the Traditional Irish-Music Pub Crawl. You crawl to three pubs listening to musicians demonstrate traditional Irish instruments like the bodrum (sound up)...and once you have the beat , you can tap your feet to the music.
Whether in the pubs, in its ancient past, in its struggle for independence, or in its lively streets — Dublin is the capital of nation with a rich history and an irrepressible spirit.
And the people of Dublin, with their inspirational love of life and freedom, make this city a delight to visit. Thanks for joining us. I'm Rick Steves. Until next time, keep on travelin'.
See more travel details for recommendations highlighted in bold, excerpted from Rick's guidebooks.