Hi. I'm Rick Steves, back with more of the best of Europe. This time we're in the birthplace of social security and dynamite. It's Sweden's capital city — Stockholm. Thanks for joining us.
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 Here in the north of Europe, of the Scandinavian countries, Sweden is the biggest and most populous. And Stockholm is by far Sweden's dominant city. Locals here are particularly confident and self-assured. And exploring this city, the character of its people unfolds in its many attractions.
 We'll explore the old town, be dazzled in its city hall, enjoy a slice of reindeer in style, cruise to the palace, stay warm in a convivial ice bar, imagine Sweden's once-upon-a-time mighty navy, marvel at the work of a local sculptor, tap our toes to a Swedish beat [fiddler or dance], and cruise the Archipelago to a memorable island feast.
 Today, with nearly two million people in Stockholm's greater metropolitan area, one in five Swedes calls this city home. Once a respected military power, now famously neutral, this stately capital respects its rich heritage while embracing modern innovation.
 Wander through the city and you're struck by its stately buildings, proud monuments, and its inviting promenades. Stockholm's appealing waterfront is both a working harbor and an inviting people zone.
 Overlooking it all in the heart of the old town is the royal palace. In summer, with great fanfare, military bands herald the Changing of the Guard.
 The ceremony in the courtyard of the palace recalls the days when Sweden was a militaristic power – a kingdom to be reckoned with. While this spectacle does look formidable, it's more a celebration of Swedish heritage in a country that today is famously pacifist.
 Strong and expansionist kings — like Gustavus Adolphus, who ruled in the early 1600s and was a brilliant general — made Stockholm this country's permanent capital and established the Swedish Empire.
 Gustavus Adolphus was nicknamed the Lion of the North. He made Sweden a top European power. And he was instrumental in helping the Protestants turn the tide against the Catholics in the Thirty Years War. Because of his innovative tactics on the battlefield, he's considered by many the Father of Modern Warfare.
 For a glimpse at the splendor of Sweden's former power, step into the Royal Armory. While fearsome on the battlefield, armor had ceremonial value as well. These pieces must have dazzled viewers back in the 1600s — that was the point. The fine workmanship elevates tools of war to an art form. The same lavish attention to protection and style was also given to horses.
 The Swedish royal family kept up with their counterparts elsewhere in Europe. Four centuries of coronation and royal wedding wear take you from the time of Gustavus Adolphus — this is his fine suit — through the ages. This 1766 wedding dress of Queen Sofia was designed to cleverly show off her fabulous wealth. And the dress — with its extravagant material — seems even wider when compared to her 20-inch corseted waist. And for a coronation, everyone puts on their finest jewels. In 1607, the new king wore this and his horse wore that.
 The royal children get a section for themselves. This cradle has rocked heirs to the throne since the 1650s. And it'll rock the country's next king or queen as well. It's fun to imagine little princes romping around in their vast 600-room home. They had the very best in toys. A century ago, one little prince treasured his box car and loved playing cowboys and Indians.
 The basement is a royal garage filled with exquisite coaches. This lavish coronation coach was made in France in about 1700. Its original tortoise shell flooring survives. This coach — sporting the latest in suspension gear — last rolled a king to his big day in the mid 1800s.
 The royal palace — which contains this museum and several others — is one of Europe's biggest. While it's technically the royal family's official residence, they actually live outside of town at Drottningholm Palace.
 The most scenic way to get there is the way the royals once did, by boat. We're cruising up Lake Maleren. This relaxing voyage is a delight, revealing more dimensions of this city of lakes, parks, and islands.
 Drottningholm Palace has been called "Sweden's Versailles." The public is free to enjoy the garden and tour the palace.
 The grand entry leads into a world where 18th century style prevails. Back then, Europe's monarchs were considered divinely ordained to rule and they were tightly networked by marriage. In fact the Swedish royal family had blue-blooded cousins from Catherine the Great in Russia to Louis 16th of France.
 The décor pushed the notion of a divine monarch. But the king was long challenged by a strong parliament and, today, Sweden's royalty is a modern constitutional monarchy.
 The ball room hosted grand occasions. The bed room was a kind of theater where the monarch would be ceremonially dressed as noble would slip on his leotards. The lavish library illustrated the royal commitment to education in the 18th century. And as in palaces throughout Europe, Roman busts implied at least symbolic connections with the Roman Empire in order to substantiate and legitimize royal power.
 The palace's baroque theater takes you back 200 years. Today, visitors wait for their tours where aristocrats once waited for their opera.
 Guides tell the interesting story behind this unique theater.
[23 bites from guide: forgotten, found, perspective exaggerates depth, back stage, drama like thunder, and wind with noise-making theater tools, demo with natural sound, Rick's short OC with guide]
 Originally the entire city was contained on this island. Today, Stockholm's old town — or Gamla Stan — is popular with locals and visitors alike. The town square, called Stortorget, was once an important commercial center. Now, it's simply a favored place to relax and enjoy the Swedish good life.
 Gamla Stan's main drag is a favorite with shoppers and busy with tourists. But, venturing just a block or two from the commotion, the atmosphere changes. Tranquil lanes feel much like they did back in the 17th century.
 Medieval Stockholm was a trading center, busy with merchants from foreign lands. The German Church, rocketing heavenward, reminded all of the power of the Germans in this part of Europe.
 With the Reformation in 1527, the king made Sweden a Protestant state. Suddenly church services were held in the people's language rather than in Latin. That meant that each group needed its own church. The Germans worshipped there. The Finns had their church. And the Swedes got the cathedral.
 The cathedral, while grand, is wedged into the tight quarters of Gamla Stan. The interior is cobbled with centuries-old tombstones. When royal families worshipped here, they sat in their own private pews. These date from about 1700. While originally Catholic, this church has been Lutheran for five centuries.
 With the Reformation's passion for sermons and Bible readings, the pulpit was a focal point. You can feel the feistiness of the Swedish Lutherans in this 500 year old statue of Saint George and the Dragon. It's carved of oak and elk horn. To some, this symbolizes the Swedes' overcoming their arch-rivals — the evil Danes. In a broader sense, it's an inspiration to take up the struggle against even non-Danish evil.
 Historic as the church is, it cultivates a modern liveliness from its candle-holder with a global perspective to its young woman pastor.
 Bites from Jenny — we are called priests in Swedish — but pastors in English, no the church is not a state church any longer, for 500 years Swedes were born Lutheran, now you have to join
 When choosing a place for dinner, I try to leave the high rent spots to the tourists and find small restaurants with low rent catering to loyal hometown customers. And, of course, locals know the good places. My friend, Hakan and his wife Ylva, are taking me to one of their favorites for a lesson in good eating, Swedish style.
 Reindeer, Salmon, what is Swedish cuisine then and now, population grew in 19th century – peace, vaccinations, and potatoes.
 And after dinner — at least here in the old town — there's always an inviting bar with live music nearby. Swedes love just about any kind of live music. American music — from jazz to rock-a-billy — is a hit. It seems everyone speaks English... and making friends is easy.
 Stockholm's Nobel Prize Museum tells the story of the world's most prestigious award. Stockholm-born Alfred Nobel was a great inventor with over 300 patents. His most famous invention — dynamite.
 Living in the late 1800s, Nobel was a man of his age. It was a time of great optimism, wild ideas, and grand projects. His dynamite enabled entire nations to blast their way into the modern age with canals, railroads, and tunnels. It made warfare much more destructive. And it also made Alfred Noble a very wealthy man.
 Wanting to leave a legacy that celebrated and supported people with great ideas, he left his fortune to fund the Nobel Prize. Each year laureates are honored in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peacemaking [more fields?]. Portraits of all the prize winners since the first annual ceremony was held in 1901 hang from the ceiling — shuffling around the room like shirts at the dry cleaner's. And video clips let you ponder the contributions of so many great minds.
 The annual Nobel Prize banquet is held a short walk away, in Stockholm's city hall. It's a stately mix of eight million red bricks and lots of Stockholm pride. While churches dominate cities in southern Europe, up here, in the Scandinavian capitals, city halls seem to be the most impressive buildings. They celebrate humanism...people working together in community. Built in 1923, Stockholm's City Hall is particularly enjoyable and worthwhile for its entertaining 50-minute tour.
 This is the Blue Hall, the grand banquet room where 1300 sit for the annual Nobel Prize ceremony. It's National Romantic style and all the materials and artists are Swedish.
 This is a functioning government building. The City Council meets here — where 101 people represent 700,000 people of Stockholm. A majority of the representatives are women. And they are hobby legislators. They have day jobs... that's why the council meets in the evening in this room. The ceiling recalls our Viking heritage...it resembles the roofs of long wooden Viking houses [this is most deletable factoid — because it's bogus].
 This is the Gold Hall, built in 1922 of 19 million mosaics chips. It's got real gold. That is the Queen of the Lake. She holds this building, the city hall, in her lap. Notice how she's the center of world, with the West on the left with the Eiffel Tower and the Statue of Liberty. And the East on the right with elephants and the Turkish moon. She's also the center of the universe with the zodiac and angels with trumpets. She's the guardian of world peace.
 The City Hall comes with a bold tower. It offers a commanding view of Stockholm's 14 islands which are woven together by about fifty bridges. One- third water, one-third parks, one-third city, on the sea, surrounded by woods, Sweden's stunning capital is green, clean, and people-friendly.
 Strolling the ever-expanding shoreline promenades, you join the parade of locals. Well-worn old working ships seem content... retired in the shadow of elegant facades. Rather than cars and buses, it's the domain of joggers, baby strollers, and visitors marveling at the joys of this city on the Baltic. And there's fishing right downtown. The harbor waters are restocked every spring with as many as 100,000 new fish.
 Stockholm exists because this is where the huge Lake Malaren meets the Baltic Sea. Traders would paddle their goods from far inland to this point from where sea-going merchants would ship it south to Europe.
 In the 13th century, new kingdom of Sweden needed revenue so they established customs laws and levied duties on all the iron, copper, and furs shipped through here. Today, the lake, which is about 3 feet above sea level, is connected to the Baltic Sea by locks.
 For the thoughtful observer, history is everywhere. For example, centuries ago, this Kungsgarten [?] or "King's Garden Square" was the private garden of the king. Today, its clearly the people's domain. It's considered Stockholm's living room.
 Swedes are leaders among Europeans with their social legislation. They pay high taxes and have high expectations. Swedes enjoy a minimum of five weeks paid vacation from the day they're hired. In the interest of family values, new moms and dads split 16 months of paid parental leave as they like. And Swedes believe that every citizen, regardless of their family's economic status, gets quality health care and education. Alcohol is highly taxed and tourists contribute to Sweden's costly entitlements every time they buy a drink.
 A fun if touristy way to do that is to put on a heavy coat and enjoy a fancy vodka on ice... literally. The Absolut Icebar is actually made out of ice. For your cover charge you'll get 45 chilly minutes to sip your choice of vodka drinks in an ice glass, at an ice bar or lounging on an nice ice sofa. In a scene like this, there's no shortage of conversation [fade to black]
 Sergles Torg was built in the 1960s to balance the political and royal city with a thriving commercial district. The modern center of Stockholm is dedicated to shopping. Festooned with sales banners blowing in the Nordic wind, thriving pedestrian boulevards are lined with temptations on sale.
 Hötorget — literally "Hay Market" — now feeds people instead of horses. This vibrant outdoor produce market changes colors with the seasons. Today, in August, it's berries of the forest and golden chanterelles.
 Overlooking the market is a striking statue by Carl Milles. For more of his work, you'll find a veritable forest of statues by Sweden's greatest sculptor on a bluff at the edge of town. Carl Milles spent much of his career here at his villa, where he lived and worked for 20 years. He lovingly designed this delightful sculpture garden.
 Milles wanted his art to be displayed on pedestals...to be seen as if silhouettes against the sky. His subjects — often Greek myths such as Pegasus or Poseidon — stand out as if using the sky as a blank paper. Yet, unlike silhouettes, images in the sky can be enjoyed from many angles. Milles injected life into his work with water, splashing playfully.
 Perhaps his most famous work, "Hand of God," gives an insight into Milles' belief that when the artist created he was, in a way, divinely-inspired.
 The city's harbor is busy with ferries. And many take people into its vast archipelago — an amazing playground of literally thousands of islands stretching 80 miles from the city.
 There are plenty of ways to see the archipelago. Those taking the huge cruise ships that ferry travelers to Helsinki enjoy three hours of island wonder before they finally reach the open Baltic Sea. You can take a quick tour boat... or, what we're doing, catch a ferry with the locals.
 One of the joys of an archipelago trip is to grab a perch on the breezy sundeck with the Swedes as they enjoy their island wonderland. Ferries serve over a hundred islands. They stop at others... on request... or to plop down the days' mail. Every cabin seems to have a couple of lounge chairs strategically placed to enjoy the relaxing view. Your archipelago options are endless and you don't need to own a cabin to enjoy this idyllic island escape.
 Vaxholm, just about an hour from downtown, with its charming old town mixing fishing huts and a fortress, is a popular destination.
 Today it's hard to imagine that, back when Sweden was a military superpower, this fort was built to secure the city from attack by sea. The ramparts remain... but they are manned not by soldiers but by sun worshippers enjoying Sweden's long summer days.
 My favorite lookout post: Anette's Homestead Café. For Swedes, their coffee and pastry break is a ritual – embraced with all the vigor of a constitutional right. And here, savoring life to its fullest just seems to come naturally.
 For an even more peaceful and remote destination, ride a couple hours past Vaxholm, and hop off in Svartso. The little grocery provides this island community with whatever it needs. Residents stock their cabins using the island's answer to a moving van. And visitors can hop a rental bike.
 In moments you're out in the countryside immersed in pastoral farm land and pristine nature. Your bike ride is memorably capped with a stop at the island eatery. Here at xxx, we requested the house specialty and xxx [?] overwhelms us with the bounty of the Baltic. [fade to black]
 Even if you don't leave the city, you'll still likely be on the water. Scenic Stockholm harbor tours are popular and shuttle boats zip between the many islands. From downtown, it's just a quick hop to Djurgarden — the Garden Island.
 Four hundred years ago, Djurgården was the king's hunting ground. Now this entire lush island is Stockholm's fun center, protected as a national park. You can rent a canoe, enjoy a bike ride, munch a picnic, or just take in the harbor scene along with a good cold beer. And this island has several of the city's top museums.
 The Vasa Museum is my favorite maritime museum anywhere. It took several centuries, but Stockholm turned a titanic flop into one of Europe's great sightseeing attractions. The Vasa — while heralded as the ultimate warship of her day — sank, just minutes into her maiden voyage.
 It was 1628. The king, eager to expand the reach of his domain, launched his formidable new war ship. Laden with an extra row of cannon, she was top-heavy. X00 yards into its maiden voyage, a breeze caught the sails and blew it over. The Vasa sank to the bottom of Stockholm's harbor where it sat for over 300 years. In 1961, with the help of steel cables and huge inflatable pontoons, the Vasa rose again from the deep.
 Today the Vasa, the best-preserved ship of its kind, is chemically petrified and housed in a state-of-the-art museum.
 Vasa is decorated with hundreds of sculptures — all designed to show the power of the king known as "the Lion of the North," Gustavus Adolphus. With this awe-inspiring ship, Sweden was gearing up to build its empire and become a European power.
 Clever exhibits like these show life on board and evoke the instant that the hopes and asperations of this mighty ship and its crew where dashed.
 Another great sight here on the Garden Island is the Skansen open air folk museum. This was the first in what became a Europe-wide movement to preserve traditional architecture. Founded in 1891, Skansen is a sprawling collection of 150 historic buildings that take you back in time. These homes, churches, schoolhouses and so on were transplanted from all corners of Sweden. Today, tourists take a virtual trip all over the country without leaving the capital, seeing wonderfully furnished old interiors and folk crafts in action.
 Artisans demonstrate their crafts. The potter works his magic — enthralling visitors old and young. And glass — traditionally a big industry in Sweden — is blown. Observing peasants fiddling out on the porch takes you back to a time when people provided their own entertainment.
 This farm is from further north and dates from the mid-1800s. I know that because traditionally dressed attendants are there to explain things. This wealthy farmer showed off by displaying his fine dishes. He made his money producing linen from flax. Linen, which this women is both spinning and wearing, was the perfect undergarment — making heavy woolens more comfortable to wear.
 And in a park dedicated to keeping folk traditions alive, a day at Skansen is memorably capped at a bandstand with some Swedish folk dancing.
 From these humble roots Sweden has blazed a path to be a conscience of the world nagging other societies to live life with gusto and for today. It's an egalitarian vision that many refuse to even seriously consider.
 Thanks for joining us. I'm Rick Steves. Until next time, keep on travelin'.