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Connecting in Europe’s Hub Airports

If you're connecting through Paris' Charles de Gaulle airport, allow plenty of time between flights.
By Rick Steves

For those just connecting through London, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, or Paris — Europe's main air-travel hubs — I've compiled the key info you need for your layover.

For detailed advice on reaching the city center from each of these airports, see the guidebooks that cover each city.

Connecting in London

Heathrow Airport (LHR)

Heathrow Airport is one of the world's busiest airports. Think about it: 75 million passengers a year on 500,000 flights from 185 destinations riding 80 airlines, like some kind of global maypole dance.


Heathrow's terminals are numbered T-1 through T-5. Though T-1 is now closed for arrivals and departures, it still supports other terminals with baggage, and the newly renovated T-2 ("Queen's Terminal") will likely expand into the old T-1 digs eventually. Each terminal is served by different airlines and alliances; for example, T-5 is exclusively for British Air and Iberia Air flights, while T-2 serves mostly Star Alliance flights, such as United and Lufthansa. Screens posted throughout the airport identify which terminal each airline uses; this information should also be printed on your ticket or boarding pass.

You can walk between T-2 and T-3. From this central hub (called "Heathrow Central"), T-4 and T-5 split off in opposite directions (and are not walkable). The easiest way to travel between the T-2/T-3 cluster and either T-4 or T-5 is by Heathrow Express train (free to transfer between terminals, departs every 15–20 minutes). You can also take a shuttle bus (free, serves all terminals), or the Tube (requires a ticket, serves all terminals).

If you're flying out of Heathrow, it's critical to confirm which terminal your flight will use (look at your ticket/boarding pass, check online, or call your airline in advance) — if it's T-4 or T-5, allow extra time. Taxi drivers generally know which terminal you'll need based on the airline, but bus drivers may not.


Each terminal has an airport information desk (long hours daily), exchange bureaus, ATMs, a pharmacy, a VAT refund desk (you must present the VAT claim form from the retailer here to get your tax rebate on items purchased in the EU), and baggage storage (£6/item up to 2 hours, £11/item for 2–24 hours, not open overnight). Heathrow offers both free Wi-Fi and pay Internet access points (in each terminal, check map for locations). You'll find a post office on the first floor of T-3 (departures area). Each terminal also has cheap eateries.

Heathrow's small "Tourist Information Office" (tourist info shop), even though it's a for-profit business, is worth a visit if you're nearby and want to pick up free information, including the London Planner visitors guide (long hours daily, 5-minute walk from T-3 in Tube station, follow signs to Underground; bypass queue for transit info to reach window for London questions).

Getting into the City Center

You have several options for traveling the 14 miles between Heathrow Airport and downtown London:

  • Tube: about £12 round-trip, 6/hour, about 2 hours round-trip
  • National Express bus to Victoria Coach Station (5-minute walk from Victoria Tube/train station): £16–20 round-trip plus about £5 for connecting Tube fare, 1–2/hour (less frequent from Victoria Station to Heathrow), 1.5–2.5 hours round-trip depending on time of day plus about 10 minutes round-trip for every stop between Tube stations out from Victoria
  • Heathrow Express express train to Paddington Station: £37 round-trip (£5 more if you buy your ticket on board) plus about £5 for connecting Tube fare, 4/hour, daily 5:00–24:00, 30 minutes round-trip to downtown from Heathrow Central Station serving T-2/T-3, for T-4 take free transfer to Heathrow Central, add 15 minutes from T-5 and about 10 minutes round-trip for every stop between Tube stations out from Paddington
  • Just Airports offers a private car service between Heathrow (and other London airports) and the city center; see website for price quote
  • Taxi: About £70/group each way, roughly 2 hours round trip — but beware traffic delays

Gatwick Airport (LGW)

More and more flights land at Gatwick Airport, which is halfway between London and the south coast. Gatwick has two terminals, North and South, which are easily connected by a free monorail (two-minute trip, runs 24 hours daily). Note that boarding passes say "Gatwick N" or "Gatwick S" to indicate your terminal. British Airways flights generally use Gatwick South. The Gatwick Express trains stop only at Gatwick South. Schedules in each terminal show only arrivals and departures from that terminal.

Getting into the City Center

Gatwick Express trains are the best way into London from this airport. They shuttle conveniently between Gatwick South and London's Victoria Station, which is a reasonable walk, or easy Tube ride, from many of London's iconic sights (£35 round-trip, at least 10 percent cheaper if purchased online, Oyster cards accepted but no discount offered, 4/hour, 30 minutes, runs 5:00–24:00 daily).

London's Other Airports

There's a small chance you might use Stansted (STN) or the far-to-the-north Luton (LTN) airports, and an even slimmer chance you're connecting via the tiny-but-central City Airport (LCY) or the far-to-the-east Southend Airport (SEN). Each of these is connected to the city center by train and/or bus.

Connecting London's Airports by Bus

A handy National Express bus runs between Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted, and Luton airports — easier than having to cut through the center of London — although traffic can be bad and can increase travel times.

Buses between Heathrow Airport and…

  • Gatwick Airport: £25, 1–6/hour, about 1.5 hours — but allow at least three hours between flights
  • Stansted Airport: £27, 1–2/hour direct, 1.5 hours
  • Luton Airport: £27, roughly hourly, 1 hour

Connecting in Amsterdam

Schiphol Airport (AMS)

Schiphol (SKIP-pol) Airport is located about 10 miles southwest of Amsterdam's city center. Like most of Holland, it is user-friendly and below sea level. With an appealing array of shops, eateries, and other time-killing opportunities, Schiphol is a fine place to arrive, depart, or change planes. A truly international airport, Schiphol has done away with Dutch — signs are in English only.


Though Schiphol officially has four terminals, it's really just one big building. You could walk it end to end in about 20 minutes (but allow some time to pass through security checkpoints between certain terminals). All terminals have ATMs, banks, shops, bars, and free Wi-Fi. An inviting shopping and eating zone called Holland Boulevard runs between Terminals 2 and 3.


The ABN/AMRO banks around the airport offer fair exchange rates (avoid the Travelex ATMs that charge a much higher exchange rate). Service Point, in Schiphol Plaza (also signed as "Arrivals Hall") at the end of the shopping mall near Terminal 4, is a useful all-purpose service counter that sells SIM cards, prints tickets, and ships packages (daily 7:00–22:00).

Convenient luggage lockers are at various points around the airport — allowing you to leave your bag here on a lengthy layover (both short- and long-term lockers, cash and cards accepted; biggest bank of lockers near the train station at Schiphol Plaza).

Time-Killing Tips

If you have extra time at Schiphol, check out the Rijksmuseum Schiphol, a little art gallery and museum store on Holland Boulevard, the lively shopping/eating zone between Lounges 2 and 3. The Rijksmuseum loans a dozen or so of its minor masterpieces from the Dutch Golden Age to this unique airport museum, including actual Dutch Masters (free, always open, gift stop good for last-minute gifts).

Or, to escape the airport crowds, follow signs for the Panorama Terrace to the third floor of Terminal 2, where you'll find a quieter, full-of-locals cafeteria, a kids' play area, and a view terrace where you can watch planes come and go while you nurse a coffee. If you plan to visit the terrace on arrival, stop there before you pass through customs.

Getting into the City Center

Direct, frequent trains to Amsterdam's Centraal Station, the fastest and cheapest option into town, make a quick visit to the city center worth considering (4–6/hour, 20 minutes each way, €5.30 each way, shortest lines at ticket machines near baggage claim). Ticket machines accept coins and chip-and-PIN credit cards (start the no-brainer transaction by pressing "I want to go to Amsterdam Centraal"). When traveling from Amsterdam Central to Schiphol, trains generally leave every 15 minutes from track 14a.

Taxis cost about €50 one-way to downtown Amsterdam; Uber serves the airport for about €30. The pickup spot is just outside the car-rental offices in Schiphol Plaza.

Connecting in Frankfurt

Frankfurt Airport (FRA)

Frankfurt's airport (Flughafen), just a few stops by S-Bahn from the city center, has its own long-distance train station, which makes it a snap to connect from a flight to other German cities.


There are two separate terminals (know your terminal — check your ticket or the airport website). Terminal 1, a multi-level maze of check-in counters and shops, is linked to the train station. Terminal 2 is small and quiet, with few services. The SkyLine people mover connects the two terminals in less than five minutes. Several staffed info desks are sprinkled around the airport; keep an eye out for one of the freestanding kiosks that immediately connect you to a free video call with an airport-info staffer.


The airport has three pay baggage-storage desks (Gepäckaufbewahrung; the branch in Terminal 1B, level 1 is open 24 hours). Among the other services are a newsstand with postal services (Book + Press, level 0), a pharmacy (in Terminal 1B, level 2, and also in Terminal 2), a 24-hour medical clinic (outside the 1C arrivals area), public showers (one in Terminal 2 and three in Terminal 1, €6, shampoo and towel included), and free Wi-Fi. A good-sized, fairly priced Tegut supermarket is in Terminal 1C, level 0 (tricky to find: Go down the escalators from the underpass on level 1 between terminals 1B and 1C, or up the escalators from train platforms 1–3). There are customs desks in both terminals for VAT refunds (daily 7:00–21:00; after hours, ask the information desk to page a customs officer for you). Long-distance trains leave from the airport's Fernbahnhof (platforms 4–7).

Getting into the City Center

It's a 12-minute train ride on the S-Bahn into Frankfurt's main train station (Hauptbahnhof); trains depart from platforms 1–3 (4/hour, €5.20 each way, ride included in €10.50 Frankfurt Card and €10.15 individual/€18.50 group version of all-day Tageskarte Frankfurt transit pass, but not in cheaper version of Tageskarte Frankfurt). From the Hauptbahnhof you're a quick walk or U-Bahn ride to the Römerberg, Frankfurt's central market square. Figure about €30 for a taxi from the airport into town. Also consider Frankfurt on Foot's flexible "Layover Tour," which includes pickup and drop-off at the airport.

"Frankfurt" Hahn Airport (HHN)

This smaller airport, misleadingly classified as a "Frankfurt" airport for marketing purposes, is an unlikely spot for a layover, and you won't be making a quick foray into downtown Frankfurt from here, as it's a nearly two-hour drive away. (Regular buses connect Frankfurt Hahn Airport to Bullay — for trains to Cochem, Trier, Mainz, Cologne, and Frankfurt.)

Connecting in Paris

Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG)

Paris' main airport has three terminals: T-1, T-2, and T-3. Most flights from the US use T-1 or T-2. You can travel between terminals on the free CDGVAL shuttle train (departs every 5 minutes, 24/7) or by shuttle bus (on the arrivals level). Allow 30 minutes to travel between terminals and an hour for total travel time between your gates at T-1 and T-2. Allow plenty of time to connect here — particularly on budget airlines, which can have especially long check-in lines.

Services: All terminals have Paris Tourisme information desks, where you can get city maps and tickets for the suburban Train-B to Paris — a terrific time- and hassle-saver. You'll also find ATMs (distributeurs), free (but slow) Wi-Fi, shops, cafés, and bars. If you are returning home and want a VAT refund, look for tax-refund centers in the check-in area.

Terminal 1 (T-1)

This circular terminal has three key floors — arrivals (arrivées) on the top floor, and two floors for departures (départs) below. The terminal's round shape can be confusing — if you feel like you're going around in circles, you probably are.

Arrival Level (niveau arrivée): After passing through customs, you'll exit between doors (porte) 34 and 36. Nearby are a snack stand and an ATM. Walk clockwise to find taxis (door 24).

Departure Level (niveaux départs): Scan the departure screen to find out which hall you should go to for check-in. Halls 1–4 are on floor 2, and 5–6 are downstairs on floor 1. Also on floor 1 are the CDGVAL shuttle train, cafés, a post office (La Poste), pharmacy, boutiques, and a handy grocery. Boarding gates and duty-free shopping are located on floor 3, which is only accessible with a boarding pass.

Terminal 2 (T-2)

This long, horseshoe-shaped terminal is divided into six halls, labeled A through F. If arriving here, prepare for long walks and, in most cases, short train rides to baggage claim and exits. It's a busy place, so take a deep breath and follow signage carefully. A Paris Tourisme counter is located near gate 6/8 in each hall. Shuttle buses (navettes) circulate between T-2 halls A, C, and F, and to terminals T-1 and T-3 on the arrivals level.

T-2 has a train station, with suburban trains into Paris, as well as longer-distance trains to the rest of France (including high-speed TGV trains, also called "InOui" trains). It's located between T-2C/D and T-2E/F, below the Sheraton Hotel (prepare for a long walk to reach your train).

Post offices, pharmacies, and ATMs are all well signed. T-2E/F has several duty-free shopping arcades, and other T-2 halls have smaller duty-free shops. You can stash your bags at Baggage du Monde, located above the train station in T-2, but it's pricey (daily 6:00–21:30).

Getting into the City Center

Buses, suburban trains, airport vans, and taxis link the airport's terminals with central Paris, and none are all that speedy — I wouldn't attempt a jaunt into the city except on the longest of layovers.

If you're trying to make the quickest possible trip into town and back, taxis and Uber are worth the extra cost (taxis charge a flat €55 fee to Left Bank; if not using Uber, take only official taxis from well-signed stands). Uber offers Paris airport pickup and dropoff for the same rates as taxis, but since drivers can't use the bus-only lanes (normal taxis can), expect some added time. Taxis and Uber are less appealing on weekday mornings as traffic into Paris can be bad — in that case, the Train-B suburban train (formerly known as, and often still signed as "RER-B") is likely a better option (€10.50 each way, 4/hour, about 30 minutes to Gare du Nord, also stops at other well-located stations including Châtelet-Les Halles, St. Michel, and Luxembourg; fastest to buy tickets from machines — which take cash and some US credit cards; runs 5:00–24:00). For step-by-step instructions on taking the suburban train into Paris, see Paris by Train.

To return to the airport on Train-B from central Paris, allow plenty of time to get to your departure gate (plan for a 15-minute Métro or bus ride to the closest Train-B station, a 15-minute wait for your train, a 35-minute train ride, plus walking time through the stations and airport). Your Métro or bus ticket is not valid on the Train-B to the airport; buy the ticket at any Métro or suburban train station from a clerk or the machines (small bills of €20 or less; some American credit cards also work). When you catch your train, make sure the sign over the platform shows Aéroport RoissyCharles de Gaulle as a stop served. (The line splits, so not every Train-B serves the airport.) If you're not clear, ask another rider, "Air-o-por sharl duh gaul?" Once at the airport, hop out either at T-2 or T-1/3 (where you can connect to T-1 or T-3 on the CDGVAL shuttle).

Orly Airport (ORY)

This easy-to-navigate airport feels small, but has all the services you'd expect at a major airport: ATMs and currency exchange, cafés, shops, post offices, and more.

Orly has two terminals: Ouest (west) and Sud (south). At both terminals, arrivals are on the ground level (level 0) and departures are on level 1. You can connect the two terminals with the free Orlyval shuttle train (well signed).

Services: Both terminals have Paris Tourisme information desks in the arrivals area (a good spot to buy tickets for public transit into Paris). Both terminals offer free Wi-Fi.

Getting into the City Center

Shuttle buses (navettes), suburban trains, and taxis connect Paris with either terminal:

  • Le Bus Direct route #1: €12 one-way, €20 round-trip, 4/hour, about 40 minutes to Eiffel Tower stop, buy ticket from driver or book online — store the ticket on your phone or print it out and bring it with you (buses depart from arrivals level — Ouest exit B-C or Sud exit L — look for signs to navettes)
  • Orlybus: €8 one-way, 3/hour, 30 minutes (goes directly to the Denfert-Rochereau Métro and Train-B stations, with access to the Luxembourg Garden area and Notre-Dame Cathedral)
  • Orlyval shuttle train: €12.05 one-way, 6/hour, 40 minutes, buy ticket to Paris — not just to Antony — before boarding (lands you at Antony Train-B station, with access to the same areas as the Orlybus — take the train in direction: Mitry-Claye or Aéroport Charles de Gaulle to reach central Paris stops; well signed and leaves from the departure level at both Orly terminals)
  • Go C Paris bus: €6.25 one-way (includes Train-C; €2 for shuttle only), 4/hour, 35 minutes, gives you access to Left Bank neighborhoods (ride bus to the Pont de Rungis station, then catch suburban Train-C — direction: Versailles Château Rive Gauche or Pontoise — to St. Michel, Musée d'Orsay, Invalides, or Pont de l'Alma)
  • Taxi: Allow €35 and 30 minutes each way for a ride into central Paris (taxi stands are located outside the Ouest terminal exit B, and to the far right as you leave the Sud terminal at exit M)
  • Uber: Head toward exit B, following signs for Pre-Ordered Vehicles. Meet your Uber driver in the lot labeled Parking Pro (same fixed rate as taxis for central Paris)

Beauvais Airport (BVA)

Budget airlines such as Ryanair use this small airport with two terminals (T-1 and T-2), offering dirt-cheap airfares but leaving you 50 miles north of Paris. The airport is basic: Waiting areas can be crowded, and services sparse.

Connecting Paris' Airports

Between Charles de Gaulle and Orly

Le Bus Direct route #3 directly and conveniently links Charles de Gaulle and Orly airports (€21, stops at Charles de Gaulle T-1 and T-2 and Orly Ouest exit B-C or Sud exit L, roughly 2/hour 5:45–23:00, 1 hour).

Suburban Train-B connects Charles de Gaulle and Orly but requires a transfer to the Orlyval train. It isn't as easy as the Le Bus Direct mentioned above, but it's faster when there's traffic (€19, 5/hour, 1.5 hours). This line splits at both ends: Heading from Charles de Gaulle to Orly, take trains that serve the Antony stop (direction: St-Rémy-les-Chevreuse), then transfer to the Orlyval shuttle train; heading from Orly to Charles de Gaulle, take trains that end at the airport — Aéroport Charles de Gaulle-Roissy, not Mitry-Claye.

Taxis take about one hour and are easiest, but pricey (about €85; book ahead online for best rates).

Between Charles de Gaulle and Beauvais

Suburban trains connect Charles de Gaulle and Beauvais airports via train. From CDG, take Train-B to Gare du Nord (see "Charles de Gaulle Airport: Getting into the City Center," above), catch a train to the town of Beauvais, and then a shuttle bus (€5, 6/day, 30 minutes), cheaper local bus #12 (12/day, 30 minutes), or taxi from the station to Beauvais Airport.

Taxis between Charles de Gaulle and Beauvais take one hour and cost about €120.

Between Orly and Beauvais

To transfer from Orly to Beauvais, you can take the Orlybus or Orlyval shuttle train (described above, under "Orly Airport") to the suburban train station, then take Train-B to Gare du Nord. From there, catch a train to the town of Beauvais and then a shuttle bus (€5, 6/day, 30 minutes), local bus #12 (€1, 12/day, 30 minutes), or taxi from the station to Beauvais Airport.

It's about a 1.5-hour taxi ride between Orly and Beauvais (about €150; try City Airport Taxis).